Blockchain Technology is known to be one of today's most groundbreaking technologies that drive the fourth industrial revolution. Designed to be resistant to the modification of their data, blockchains offer security and privacy, benefits that are well appreciated particularly by banks, governments and fin-tech corporations. They rose to fame via the successful application of cryptocurrencies, with Bitcoin being the most prominent one since its launch in 2009 by the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto. In this talk, we will shed light on the main aspects of the emerging blockchain technology with particular focus on cryptocurrencies. Our first goal is to understand the incentives and interactions of participants in decentralized networks. Subsequently, we will delve deeper into game-theoretic models, issues and potential solutions to the challenges of centralization, market price dynamics and poor scalability that are shaping the ongoing research in the blockchain ecosystem.